Where was artificial intelligence invented?
Artificial Intelligence (AI) is not a brand-new term or technology to researchers. This technology is older than most people think. Ancient Greek and Egyptian myths even mention mechanical men. The following milestones define the journey from AI generation to the current development.
Maturation and Artificial Intelligence (1943-1952).
- Year 1943: In 1943 Warren McCulloch & Walter Pits published the first AI-related work. They proposed a neural model.
- Donald Hebb, 1949 Donald Hebb presented an updating rule to modify the strength of connections between neurons. Hebbian Learning is the name given to his rule.
- The year 1950: Alan Turing, an English mathematician who pioneered Machine learning. Alan Turing published “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”, proposing a test. Turing test: This test checks if a machine can exhibit Intelligence equivalent to a human’s.
The Birth of Artificial Intelligence (1952-1956).
- In 1955, Allen Newell and Herbert A. Simon developed the “first artificial intelligence program“, “Logic Theorist”. The program proved 38 out of 52 Mathematics theorems and found new and elegant proofs for certain theorems.
- An American computer scientist, John McCarthy, first used the term “Artificial intelligence” at the Dartmouth Conference in 1956. AI is recognized as a field of study for the first time.
The first high-level programming languages were developed, such as FORTRAN or LISP. AI was a hot topic at the time.
Early enthusiasm in the golden years (1956-1974).
- In 1966, researchers focused on developing algorithms that could solve mathematical problems. Joseph Weizenbaum, a computer scientist from New York City, created ELIZA in 1966.
- In 1972, the first intelligent humanoid robotic robot, WABOT -1, was created in Japan.
First AI winter (1974-1980).
The first AI winter lasted from 1974 to 1980. AI winter is when computer scientists had to deal with a severe lack of funding for AI research from the government.
Public interest in artificial Intelligence decreased during AI winters.
AI boom (1980-1987).
In 1980, AI returned with the “Expert System” after a winter of AI. Expert systems are computer programs that mimic the decision-making abilities of human experts.
Stanford University hosted the first National Conference of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence in 1980.
Second AI Winter (1987-1993).
Second AI Winter Duration: 1987-1993
The government and investors have stopped funding AI research due to the high costs but inefficient results. Expert systems such as XCON were very cost-effective.
The rise of intelligent agents (from 1993-2011).
Year 1997: In 1997, IBM Deep Blue defeated world chess champ Gary Kasparov and became the world’s first computer to defeat a world champion.
The year 2002: Roomba is the first vacuum cleaner to use AI.
AI was introduced in Business in 2006. Companies like Facebook, Twitter and Netflix also used AI.
Deep learning, Big Data and Artificial General Intelligence (2011-Present)
IBM Watson’s win in 2011 resulted from its ability to answer complex questions and riddles. Watson has proven to understand natural language and quickly solve tricky questions.
Google launched a feature in its Android app called “Google Now” that provided information as a forecast.
The year 2014: 2014 Chatbot Eugene Goostman won the infamous Turing test.
The year 2018: IBM’s “Project Debater”, a debater, debated complex topics with master debaters. It also performed exceptionally well.
Google demonstrated an AI program called “Duplex”, a virtual assistant who had taken ‘on call’ hairdresser appointments. The lady on the other side did not notice that she spoke with the machine.
AI is now at a very high level. Deep learning, data science, and big data are all in vogue. Companies like Google, Facebook, IBM and Amazon create amazing devices using AI. Artificial Intelligence will be a powerful tool in the future.